Diamond Anvil Cell System

Diamond Anvil Cell System

Prof. Zhen Fang studied quantitative (visual and microscopic) assessment of the behavior of biomass and plastics in supercritical water (SCW) and designed unique diamond anvil cell (DAC) system in Canada (McGill), leading to the invention of “fast hydrolysis process”.

Prof. Zhen Fang further studied one-pot and low-temperature synthesis of liquid biofuels and chemicals from carbohydrates (Nat Commun; 2 PCT, 2 patents). This unique process almost completely converts lignocelluloses, after hydrolysis and decomposition, to imides and liquid fuels (2,5-dimethylfuran, methyl levulinate, gamma valerolactone, methylfuran).

国际会议Prof. Zhen Fang chaired keynote section of the Int’l Symp. on Technology & Equipment of Biomass Utilization

国际会议Prof. Zhen Fang attended the Int’l Symp. on Technology & Equipment of Biomass Utilization

On December 27, 2020, Prof. attended the Int’l Symp. on Technology & Equipment of Biomass Utilization organized by Nanjing Agricultural University and Jiangsu Energy Research Society (JERS). Prof. Zhen Fang chaired keynote section with 3 excellent presentations given:

  1. Chunbao (Charles) XU on Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass into Bioenergy, Western University (Canada);
  2. Richard L. SMITH on Opportunities for Biomass Utilization with Hydrothermal and Solvothermal Methods, Tohoku University (Japan);
  1. Mingjie JIN on Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals production, Nanjing University of Science & Technology (China)

方老师出席国际研讨会“生物质利用技术与设备”

2020年12月27日,方老师出席了由南京农业大学与江苏省能源研究会组织的“生物质利用技术与装备研究”国际研讨会。方老师主持了主题演讲部分, 三位 教授做了精彩的演讲:

  1. 徐春宝教授 “湿生物质水热转化为生物能的研究”, 西部大学(加拿大);
  2. Richard L.SMITH教授 “水热法和溶剂热法利用生物质的机会”,东北大学(日本);
  3. 金明杰教授,“木质纤维素生物质生物转化用于燃料和化学品生产”,南京理工大学(中国)。

优秀研究生导师Prof. Zhen Fang wins 2020 Excellent Supervisor Award of NJAU

优秀研究生导师Prof. Zhen Fang wins 2020 Excellent Supervisor Award of NJAU

Prof. Zhen Fang wins 2020 Excellent Supervisor Award of Nanjing Agricultural University (NJAU) for training graduate students and postdoctoral research fellows (PDFs)(1 PhD student wins the President Scholarship of NJAU, 1 PDF wins “the national youth talent support program”; trained 3 PDFs, 1 PhD and 5 master students) and outstanding graduate teaching (2 graduate courses).

方老师获2020南京农业大学优秀研究生导师。

各学院、各单位:

学校开展了第三届“做出突出贡献博士学位获得者”、优秀研究生导师和优秀研究生课程等评选工作。

根据《关于召开南京农业大学第五届研究生教育工作会议预备通知暨开展有关评选表彰工作的通知》(南农大研办﹝2020﹞68 号)文件通知,经个人申请、学院审核推荐、专家组评审,表彰名单公示。

 

最具影响力研究生Miss WJ Cong wins 2020 the most influential graduate students award of NJAU

最具影响力研究生Miss WJ Cong wins 2020 the most influential graduate students award of NJAU

Recently, Ph.D. student Miss Wen-jie Cong (supervisor: Prof. Zhen Fang) has won “the most influential graduate students award of NJAU” (Nanjing Agricultural University) after defended among more than 100 nominees for her outstanding contributions to the green production of biodiesel from waste oils and waste solid (as catalyst). After recommendation by college, expert evaluation and public defense, 10 graduate students won the award. Miss Wen-jie Cong together with four other graduate students won the “star of scientific research”.

Congraduations!

近日,生物能源组博士生丛文杰(导师:方真教授)荣获“南京农业大学2020年度最具影响力研究生”称号。本次符合条件的参评研究生共100余名,经学院推荐、专家评审及现场答辩,最终10名研究生在获得该奖项,丛文杰与其他4名研究生荣获“科研之星”称号。

“南京农业大学2020年度最具影响力研究生”评选结果公示:

http://graschgzb.njau.edu.cn/info/1004/5976.htm

欧美同学会Prof. Zhen Fang was elected as vice president of the Western Returned Scholars Association of NJAU

欧美同学会Western Returned Scholars Association of NJAU

In the afternoon of December 30, 2020, the inaugural meeting of the Western Returned Scholars Association of Nanjing Agricultural University (NJAU) was held in Weigang campus.

Prof. Zhen Fang was elected as executive director and vice president of the association, and accepted the appointment letter of vice president from Vice President of NJAU Feng Hu.

南京农业大学欧美同学会成立

12月30日下午,南京农业大学欧美同学会成立大会在卫岗校区举行。江苏省委统战部一级巡视员方未艾、校党委书记陈利根出席会议并讲话。省欧美同学会秘书长朱军,校党委常委、副校长胡锋,中国工程院院士、欧美同学会名誉会长盖钧镒,江苏省社科名家、欧美同学会名誉会长钟甫宁,党委常委、组织部部长吴群等出席会议。各民主党派、各学院党委、有关职能部处负责同志与学校欧美同学会的全体会员参加了会议。党委办公室主任、统战部部长、机关党委书记孙雪峰主持成立大会。

成立大会开始前召开了理事会第一次全体会议。会议听取了孙雪峰同志关于欧美同学会筹备工作情况汇报,审议通过了《南京农业大学欧美同学会工作条例(草案)》和《南京农业大学欧美同学会常务理事、会长、副会长选举办法(草案)》,选举产生了南京农业大学欧美同学会第一届理事会常务理事、会长、副会长、秘书长。马正强等11人当选欧美同学会常务理事。马正强当选会长,朱伟云等5人当选为副会长,刘斐当选为秘书长。

方老师也当选为常务理事和副会长,并接受了副校长胡锋颁发的副会长聘书。

博士生答辩Mr. Song Tang successfully defended his doctoral dissertation

博士生答辩Mr. Song Tang successfully defended his doctoral dissertation

Started from 2:30 pm December 2, 2020, Mr. Song Tang supervised by Prof. Zhen Fang successfully defended his dissertation at A105 Huixian Building, Pukou Campus of Nanjing Agricultural University. The defending committee was composed of Prof. Qiang Yong (Chair) from Nanjing Forestry University, Prof. Xiao-mei Ye from Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Prof. Jun Zhou from Nanjing Tech University, Profs. Chang-ying Ji, Chun-xia He and Kun-quan Li from Nanjing Agricultural University.

All the members of the panel attended the doctoral dissertation defence meeting in-person, listened to the presentation, raised corresponding questions and reviewed the replies and relevant documents. Mr. Tang studied the production of microbial lipid from rice straw with dissertation entitled “Study on microbial lipid production from rice straw pretreated with polyalcohols and chlorides”. He significantly improved the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of rice straw pretreated by polyalcohols (ethylene glycol and glycerol) and chlorides (aluminum chloride and ferric chloride), and realized the efficient production of lipid from the pretreated straw hydrolysates. He worked hard and published 3 academic papers. After discussion, the panel agreed that Mr. Tang had successfully completed his research and course requirements on agricultural bio-environment and energy engineering, voted by secret ballot and decided to confer Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering to Mr. Song Tang subjected to the approval by the Academic Degrees Committees of the college and university.

Mr. Tang got a decent faculty position in a university near Nanjing.

Congratulations!

生物能源组博士研究生唐松顺利通过毕业答辩

2020年12月2日下午,南京农业大学生物能源组2017级博士研究生唐松(男)(导师方老师)毕业答辩会在南京农业大学浦口校区汇贤楼A105举行。南京林业大学的勇强教授担任答辩评审委员会主席,江苏省农科院的叶小梅研究员,南京工业大学的周俊教授,南京农业大学的姬长英教授,何春霞教授和李坤权教授共六位专家担任评审委员。

答辩会上,唐松同学对其在校期间的学术论文进行汇报,同时答辩委员会主席和各位评委提出了相关问题。根据唐松同学的问题回答以及学位论文的评阅,评委会经过评审决议,一致认为唐松同学顺利完成了农业生物环境与能源方面的研究和学习要求。唐松同学在毕业论文《多元醇和氯化物预处理水稻秸秆发酵产微生物油脂的研究》中研究了多元醇(乙二醇或甘油)和氯化物(氯化铝或氯化铁)组合常压预处理水稻秸秆,实现了木质纤维素组分的高效分离,有效提高了稻秆在低酶载量、高底物浓度下的酶水解效率,并将水解获得的可发酵性碳源用于发酵产微生物油脂,实现了水稻秸秆制备微生物油脂的高效生产。唐松同学在校期间工作努力,共发表学术论文3篇。经评委会无记名投票表决,一致同意通过博士学位论文答辩,建议授予工学博士学位。

祝贺唐松同学!

糠醛制液体燃料:Production of liquid fuel intermediates from furfural

Production of liquid fuel intermediates from furfural via aldol condensation over La2O2CO3-ZnO-Al2O3 catalyst

Recently, master student Mr. Xiao-jie Wei supervised by Dr. Xiao Kong and Prof. Zhen Fang published a research article in Catalysis Communications about Production of liquid fuel intermediates from furfural.

Aldol condensation of furfural with acetone over basic catalysts allows the production of furanic adducts 4-(2-furyl)-3-buten-2-one (FAc, C8) and 1,5-di-2-furanyl-1,4-pentadien-3-one (F2Ac, C13)) that can be transformed into high-quality diesel fuels by further hydrogenation. However, the development of efficient basic catalysts and understanding of role of basic sites with different strength are still required. In this work, monoclinic and hexagonal La2O2CO3 promoted ZnO-Al2O3 catalysts were synthesized with higher concentration of medium strength basic sites and better catalytic performance as compared with La2O3 and ZnO-Al2O3. This work demonstrated that the medium strength basic sites were especially active for aldol condensation reactions.

Related results were published:

X Kong, XJ Wei, Zhe Fang*, LP Li, and HW Lei, Production of Liquid Fuel Intermediates from Furfural via Aldol Condensation over La2O2CO3-ZnO-Al2O3 Catalyst, Catalysis Communications, 149, 106207 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2020.106207.

Reaction route for aldol condensation of furfural and acetone(糠醛与丙酮的醛醇缩合反应路线)

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La2O2CO3-ZnO-Al2O3催化醛醇缩合糠醛生产液体燃料中间体

最近,孔晓博士和硕士生魏孝捷在方老师的指导下,在国际学术期刊Catalysis Communications(IF3.6,Q2)发表以糠醛为原料通过醛醇缩合以制备液体燃料中间体的研究性论文。

在碱性催化剂上糠醛与丙酮的醛醇缩合反应可制得呋喃加合物4-(2-呋喃基)-3-丁烯-2-酮(FAc,C8)和1,5-二-2-呋喃基-1,4- 戊二烯-3-酮(F2Ac,C13),可通过进一步加氢转化为优质柴油燃料。 但是,仍然需要开发有效的碱性催化剂并了解具有不同强度的碱性位点的作用。 在这项工作中,与La2O3和ZnO-Al2O3相比,合成了单斜晶和六角形La2O2CO3促进的ZnO-Al2O3催化剂,具有较高浓度的中等强度碱性位点和更好的催化性能。 这项工作表明中等强度的碱性位点对于醛醇缩合反应特别活跃。并为从农作物秸秆(其中的半纤维素可水解和脱水生产糠醛,纤维素可水解为糖再发酵为丙酮)制备液体燃料提供了可行的化学转化方案。

详情可见:

X Kong, XJ Wei, Zhe Fang*, LP Li, and HW Lei, Production of Liquid Fuel Intermediates from Furfural via Aldol Condensation over La2O2CO3-ZnO-Al2O3 Catalyst, Catalysis Communications, 149, 106207 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2020.106207.

热解产芳香胺: Aromatic amines from pyrolysis of lignin and phenol-formaldehyde resins

Recently, Dr. Lujiang Xu together with Prof. Zhen Fang published a paper in “Bioresource Technology” about the production of aromatic amines from phenol-formaldehyde resins and lignin via co-catalytic pyrolysis with ammonia process.

Aromatic amines could be produced from organic wastes via catalytic pyrolysis with ammonia that served not only as a carrier gas but also as a reactant. Aromatic amines of 14.2 C% with selectivity of 57.6 % were obtained from phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins via pyrolysis over commercial HZSM-5-3 zeolite (Si/Al ratio of 80) catalyst at 650 °C. Significant synergetic effects have been observed when lignin was added, which improved aromatic amines yield by 32.2 % to 11.8 C% at the mixing weight ratio of lignin to PF resins of 1:1. HZSM-5-3 was slightly deactivated after 3 cycles with acid sites loss. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of plastics and biomass wastes is a fast and effective method to produce aromatic amines.

Aromatic amines was produced from PF resins with 14.2 C% yield and 58% selectivity. Co-pyrolysis was effectively enhance aromatic amines yield by 32.2%. (酚醛树脂通过氨气氛围催化热解可以生产14.2%碳产率的芳香胺;与木质素共热解,酚醛树脂可以提高芳香胺产率32%)

Related results were published in Bioresource Technology:

Lujiang Xu, Zijian He, Huan Zhang, Shenghong Wu, Chengyu Dong, Zhen Fang*, Production of aromatic amines via catalytic co-pyrolysis of lignin and phenol-formaldehyde resins with ammonia over commercial HZSM-5 zeolites, Bioresource Technology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124252  (Oct. 2020) (Article).

————————————

徐禄江博士在国际学术期刊Bioresource Technology发表学术论文

氨气氛围催化共热解木质素和酚醛树脂制备芳香胺化合物

最近,农业工程TOP期刊Bioresource Technology(影响因子7.54, Q1,第一署名单位为南京农业大学,第一作者为徐禄江博士,通讯作者为方真教授)发表了废弃塑料酚醛树脂和木质素通过氨气氛围催化热解的方式生产芳香胺的文章。

芳香胺(如苯胺等)是一类重要的大宗化工原料。利用氨作为载气和反应气体,通过催化裂解的方法转化有机废物(酚醛树脂和木质素)生产芳香胺。以工业用HZSM-5-3(Si/Al=80)沸石分子筛为催化剂在650℃高温下裂解酚醛树脂,可以得到了14.2 C%的芳香胺,且产物中芳香胺选择性达到57.6%。当木质素与酚醛树脂的混合重量比为1:1时,添加酚醛树脂可使芳香胺的产率提高32.2%。催化剂在3个循环后由于酸位点损失导致略有失活。由此可见,氨气氛围下的废弃塑料与木质素废料催化共热解也是一种可以快速制备芳香族胺的有效方法。

详情可见:

Lujiang Xu, Zijian He, Huan Zhang, Shenghong Wu, Chengyu Dong, Zhen Fang*, Production of aromatic amines via catalytic co-pyrolysis of lignin and phenol-formaldehyde resins with ammonia over commercial HZSM-5 zeolites, Bioresource Technology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124252  (Oct. 2020) (Article).

书奖:Winning 2020 Springer-Nature China New Development Awards

The Springer book “Production of Materials from Sustainable Biomass Resources” (2019) edited by Zhen Fang*, RL Smith, Jr, XF Tian, wins  the prestigious ‘Springer-Nature China New Development Awards‘ in 2020. Springer Nature granted “China New Development Awards” to the Chinese authors of 10 scholarly books selected from the 1000 books published in 2019 in recognition of their exceptional contributions to the delivery of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

In September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, calling for action by all countries to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. The 2030 Agenda provides a framework for all governments, businesses, organizations and society to work together to solve the world’s biggest challenges, such as poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, and peace and justice. Springer Nature, one of the world’s leading academic publishers, supports delivery of the SDGs through its publishing programme by sharing the discoveries that address the challenges of sustainable development. 

Dr. Linxiu Zhang (Director UNEP-IEMP) congratulates the winning authors and expresses her expectation for the future awards. Dr. Niels Peter Thomas (Managing Director, Books, Springer-Nature) and Mr. Arnout Jacobs (Managing Director,Greater China) explain the value of these Awards as well as praise the achievements in sustainable development research from China. 

Academic books are used by authors to summarize and share their long-term research findings at a certain stage of their careers. Compared with journal papers, they are more complete and comprehensive in topic coverage, and are written more systematically. They also feature a longer shelf life; in particular, some classics on fundamental research and works used as textbooks remain long-standing because of their enduring academic and ideological values. Therefore, academic books have their unique role and advantage in helping understand and solve complicated, sustainability issues spanning across different aspects of knowledge.

方真教授等主编著作荣获2020施普林格·自然“中国新发展奖”

2020年9月28日,施普林格•自然(Springer Nature)宣布10部学术图书荣获今年的“2020中国新发展奖” (China New Development Awards),以表彰中国学者对全球可持续发展目标所作出的杰出贡献。由方真,RL Smith Jr和田霄飞编辑的专著”Production of Materials from Sustainable Biomass Resources(《可持续生物质资源生产材料》,2019年Springer出版)获“2020中国新发展奖”。

今年的获奖图书,评选自2019年为中国学者出版的近1000多册图书和会议论文集,出版方是施普林格•自然旗下的两大出版机构——施普林格(Springer)和帕尔格雷夫•麦克米伦(Palgrave Macmillan)。获奖图书覆盖环境科学、人工智能、工程、社会科学,以及商务和经济学等各个学科领域,每部书的研究课题都涉及联合国17个可持续发展目标中的一个或多个目标。其中有4部聚焦于环境和可持续课题,如水资源管理、水文气象预测、环境可持续性和生物质材料,两部是有关免疫和老龄化等人类健康福利的课题,还有两部专注于人工智能和智能机器人。

张林秀博士(联合国环境署国际生态系统管理伙伴计划主任)向获奖作家表示祝贺,并对未来的奖项表示期待。Niels Peter Thomas博士(Springer Nature图书公司董事总经理)和Arnout Jacobs先生(大中华区总经理)解释了这些奖项的价值,并赞扬了中国在可持续发展研究方面取得的成就。


Acceptance speech (获奖感言)

Production of Materials from Sustainable Biomass Resources

Zhen Fang, Richard Lee Smith Jr, Xiao-Fei Tian

We are very honored to receive the Springer Nature: China New Development Awards for Biofuels and Biorefineries, “Production of Materials from Sustainable Biomass Resources,” Series Editor: Zhen Fang and Editors: Zhen Fang, Richard Lee Smith Jr and Xiao-Fei Tian.  This is Volume 9 in the series and presently we have completed 10 highly-cited volumes (with 160k chapter cites and 3 books listed “Among the top 25% most downloaded eBooks”) ” with Volume 11 in progress:

Biofuels and Biorefineries Springer Nature Series:

1.Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ionic Liquids by Zhen Fang, R. L. Smith, Jr., X. Qi, 2014

2.Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications for Biorefineries by Zhen Fang, C Xu, 2014

3.Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Microwave by Zhen Fang, R. L. Smith, Jr., X. Qi, 2015

4.Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound by Zhen Fang, R. L. Smith, Jr., X. Qi, 2015

5.Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources by Zhen Fang, R. L. Smith, Jr., X. Qi, 2015

6.Production of Biofuels and Chemicals from Lignin by Zhen Fang, R. L. Smith, Jr. (Among the top 50% and 25% most downloaded eBooks in 2016 and 2018), 2016

7.Production of Platform Chemicals from Sustainable Resources by Zhen Fang, R. L. Smith, Jr., X. Qi (Among the top 25% most downloaded eBooks in 2017), 2017

8.Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Bifunctional Catalysts by Zhen Fang, R. L. Smith, Jr., H Li (Among the top 25% most downloaded eBooks in 2018),2017

9. Production of Materials from Sustainable Biomass Resources, (win 2020 Springer-Nature China New Development Awards) by Zhen Fang*, R. L. Smith, Jr., XF Tian, 2019

10. Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Pyrolysis by Zhen Fang*, R. L. Smith, Jr., LJ Xu, 2020

In each volume, advances in a technological area as it relates to biofuels and biorefineries are described by world-class researchers in the field.  Each chapter is peer-reviewed and meticulously copy-edited to give Series Readers a polished presentation and Chapter Authors a highly-satisfying product and publishing experience.    

Volume 9 is arranged in five parts:

(I) Isolation and Purification of Lignocellulose Components in which products produced from hemicellulose are considered. 

(II) Composite Polymers Derived from Lignin and Cellulose in which production of anti-oxidants from lignin and cellulose or the numerous applications of nanocellulose are considered.

(III) Functional Materials Derived from Cellulose and Lignocelluloses in which the hot topic of biochars is considered with examples in electrochemical capacitors, selective and sustainable catalysts, electrodes and energy devices is considered.

(IV) Biomass Pellets as Fuels in which commercial application of pelletization is considered in power generation scenarios and systems.  Both chemical (fuel value) and mechanical aspects of pelletization are considered.

(V) Biosynthesis of Polymers from Renewable Biomass in which biochemical methods for the production of lactic acid (LA)-based polymers and oligomers is considered.  Of note is the overview on biopolyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and polylactic acid (PLA), since these can be expected to replace petrochemical-derived plastics in the near future.

Volume 9 has 12 Chapters:

Chapter 1 summarizes current reports on extraction, purification, chemical com-ponents, structural features, and functional properties of xylan. The preparation of xylan derivatives and xylan-based materials, as well as their potential applications, is discussed. Chemical modifications applied to functionalize xylan, especially to modify its thermo-plasticity, hydrophobicity, conductivity, and stimuli responsiveness, are highlighted. Chapter 2 introduces a detailed literature review on how lignin fits into the growing market for antioxidants, especially as replacements for polyolefins, and discusses hydrolytic depolymerization processes showing how depoly-merization can improve the antioxidant activity of commercial lignin and how the mechanical properties are affected after incorporating lignin into polymer matrices. Chapter 3 focuses on the properties and use of nanocellulose to achieve favorable strength and barrier properties, as well as in coating and paper sheet forming. Chapter 4 describes cellulose derivatization approaches and advanced material designs that have been realized and materials that have potential application in bio-medical areas. Chapter 5 gives a state-of-the-art overview of biochar production, characterization, and applications in nontraditional areas. Potential use of biochar for environmental remediation and for water desalination is demonstrated, as well as sustainable energy applications related to supercapacitors and electrochemical sensors. Chapter 6 covers progress on fabrication of biomass-derived nanostructured carbon materials for use as carbon electrodes. Correlations between carbon structures and electrochemical properties are summarized along with performance aspects. Chapter 7 summarizes the characteristics and properties of biomass-derived catalysts and metal-free functionalized carbocatalysts and shows comparisons to catalysts from other carbon sources and materials. The biomass-derived carbonaceous catalysts used in biodiesel production, gasification, and electro-Fenton oxidation reaction are reviewed. Chapter 8 introduces designs, structural features, and chemical and physical activation of engineered biocarbon-based materials with a focus on the application and performance differences of novel engineered biochars in lithium-ion batteries. Chapter 9 provides a state-of-the-art review of biomass pel-letization on the laboratory, pilot, and industrial scales with particular emphasis on its implementation in power generation. The chapter is rich with examples on the status of large-scale biomass pellets firing and co-firing of worldwide operations. Chapter 10 presents an overview of property differences among biocarbons produced from different thermal processes, including pyrolysis, gasification, and hydrothermal treatment. Of particular importance is the use of biocarbon in the steel industry to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Techno-economic and environmental aspects of biocarbon pellet combustion are analyzed. Chapter 11 highlights the effects of the raw materials, binders, pretreatment, and process parameters on pellet design and the pelletization process and includes practical models for development. Mechanical aspects of charcoal and wood pelletization are covered with actual examples that have resulted in commercial materials. Chapter 12 provides opportunities and challenges regarding the production of lactic-acid-based polymers and related oligomer precursors using genetically modified organisms and engineered enzymes. Future developments show the advantages of using biological techniques to replace fossil fuel feedstocks.

Acknowledgments

We would like to heartily acknowledge both the many dedicated authors and reviewers, who like ourselves, take great pleasure in developing or helping to develop, scientific works that have clear and lasting value. 

We would also like to acknowledge the support of our Editorial Board members:

Professor Jamal Chaouki, Polytechnique Montréal, Canada;

Professor Liang-shih Fan, Ohio State University, USA;

Professor John R. Grace, University of British Columbia, Canada;

Professor Yonghao Ni, University of New Brunswick, Canada;

Professor Vijaya Raghavan, McGill Univ., Canada;

Professor Norman R. Scott, Cornell University, USA;

Professor Richard L. Smith, Jr., Tohoku University, Japan;

Professor Ying Zheng, Univ. of Edinburgh, UK.

Finally, we would like to thank the Springer-Nature staff, with special mention being given to Ms. Becky Zhao (Senior Editor) and Ms. Abbey Huang (Editorial Assistant) for all of their encouragement, guidance and assistance during our endeavors.  Especially, we are grateful to the many Springer-Nature production staff who have provided us with carefully crafted proofs, valuable suggestions and polish that have made each volumes brightly shine that have lead to  Biofuels and Biorefineries becoming one of the top-tier downloaded Series.